He also led a cultural revolution that promoted westernised, modernised and scientific political and social systems. Peter was interested in the Church for other reasons. For one, it was a very wealthy institution that owned huge amounts serfs and swathes of land - enough to rival the authority of the tsar. When Patriarch Adrian, the head of the Church, died in Peter did not bother replacing him.
The son of Tsar Alexis, Peter the Great, changed the historical fate of Russia by radically turning away from the Byzantine heritage and reforming the state according to the model of Protestant Europe.
The destruction of the streltsy From England, Peter went on to Austria; but while he was negotiating in Vienna for a continuance of the anti-Turkish alliance, he received news of a fresh revolt of the streltsy in Moscow.
In the summer of he was back in Moscow, where he suppressed the revolt. Hundreds of the streltsy were executed, the rest of the rebels were exiled to distant towns, and the corps of the streltsy was disbanded. The Northern War —21 When it became clear that Austriano less than the Maritime Powers, was preparing to fight for the Spanish Succession and to make peace with Turkey, Peter saw that Russia could not contemplate a war without allies against the Turks, and he abandoned his plans for pushing forward from the Sea of Azov to the Black Sea.
He was now turning his attention to the Baltic instead, following the tradition of his predecessors. To dislodge them, Peter took an active part in forming the great alliance, comprising Russia, Saxony, and Denmark—Norway, which started the Northern War in In planning it and in sustaining it he displayed iron willpower, extraordinary energy, and outstanding gifts of statesmanship, generalship, and diplomacy.
The defeat of the Russians at Narvavery early in the war, did not deter Peter and, in fact, he later described it as a blessing: He also travelled abroad again for diplomatic reasons—e.
Inon the banks of the Neva Riverwhere it flows into the Gulf of FinlandPeter began construction of the city of St.
Petersburg and established it as the new capital of Russia in In celebration of his triumph, the Senate on November 2 October 22, O. Their sufferings, combined with onerous taxation, provoked a number of revolts, the most important of which were that of Astrakhan —06 and that led by Kondraty Afanasyevich Bulavin in the Don Basin — These revolts were cruelly put down.
In the summer of Peter marched against the Turks through Bessarabia into Moldavia, but he was surrounded, with all his forces, on the Prut River. Obliged to sue for peace, he was fortunate to obtain very light terms from the inept Turkish negotiators, who allowed him to retire with no greater sacrifice than the retrocession of Azov.
The Turkish government soon decided to renew hostilities; but the Peace of Adrianople Edirne was concluded inleaving Azov to the Turks. Peter, meanwhile, had formed a lasting liaison with a low-born woman, the future empress Catherine Iwho bore him other children and whom he married in Pressed finally to mend his ways or to become a monk in renunciation of his hereditary rightsAlexis took refuge in the dominions of the Holy Roman emperor Charles VI, but he was induced to return to Russia in Thereupon proceedings were brought against him on charges of high treason, and after torture he was condemned to death.
He died in prison, presumably by violence, before the formal execution of the sentence. The Persian campaign —23 Even during the second half of the Northern War, Peter had sent exploratory missions to the East—to the Central Asian steppes into the Caspian region inand to Khiva in Social Reforms Elementary education was required for all male nobility.
Under Peter the Great the Russian nobility was to become an instrument of the state, to provide civil servants, officers for the military, and government officials. Another interpretation of Peter’s reforms and their significance is exemplified in.
The Revolution of Peter the Great () by James Cracraft. In this work, Cracraft argues that although Peter’s reforms did have social and economic consequences, the main effect was a political and cultural revolution. Peter the Great was determined to reform the domestic structure of Russia.
He had a simple desire to push Russia – willingly or otherwise – into the modern era as existed then. While his military reforms were ongoing, he reformed the church, education and areas of Russia’s economy.
Peter the Great - Domestic Reforms Peter the Great ruled the Tsardom of Russia from to Determined to reform and modernise the country’s domestic structure, Peter succeeded in turning the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power. Established in , the Faculty of Social Science & Public Policy (SSPP) comprises the Schools of Education, Communication & Society; Global Affairs; Business & Management; Politics & Economics; and Security Studies.
Incorporating the Policy Institute it forms one of the largest UK university groupings focusing on policy-oriented research in a multi-disciplinary environment. Educational and Social reforms of Peter the Great.
From January 1, , Peter the Great introduced a new chronology, making the Russian calendar conform to European usage with regard to the year, which in Russia had hitherto been numbered “from the Creation of the World” and had begun on September 1 (he adhered however to the Julian Old Style as opposed to the Gregorian New Style for the days of .