The word "socialism" often implies two quite different phenomena: A doctrine and an appeal based on it, a program for changing life, and A social structure that exists in time and space.
As the United States concludes a decade of war in Southeast Asia, it is worth recalling the time, two centuries ago, when Britain faced the same agonizing problems in America that we have met in Vietnam. History seldom repeats itself exactly, and it would be a mistake to try to equate the ideologies or the motivating factors involved; but enough disturbing parallels may be drawn between those two distant events to make one wonder if the Messrs.
Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon had their ears closed while the class was studying the American Revolution. Britain, on the eve of that war, was the greatest empire since Rome. Never before had she known such wealth and power; never had the future seemed so bright, the prospects so glowing.
All, that is, except the spreading sore of discontent in the American colonies that, after festering for a decade and more, finally erupted in violence at Lexington and Concord on April 19, When news of the subsequent battle for Bunker Hill reached England that summer, George III and his ministers concluded that there was no alternative to using force to put down the insurrection.
He was determined to teach the rebellious colonials a lesson, and no doubts troubled him as to the righteousness of he course he had chosen. They are raw, undisciplined, cowardly men. I wish instead of forty or fifty thousand of these brave fellows they would produce in the field at least two hundred thousand; the more the better, the easier would be the conquest; if they did not run away, they would starve themselves into compliance with our measures.
First, he would remove the British troops from Boston, since that place was poorly situated for defense. Then, while the people of the Massachusetts Bay Colony were treated like the madmen they were and shut up by the navy, the army would move to one of the southern colonies, fortify itself in an impregnable position, and let the provincials attack if they pleased.
General James Robertson also believed that success lay in this scheme of Americanizing the combat force: On several occasions in they were able to read the public pulse that part of it, at least, that mattered by observing certain important votes in Parliament.
Each vote indicated the full tide of anger that influenced the independent members, the country gentlemen who agreed that the colonials must be put in their place and taught a lesson.
A bit out of touch with the news, highly principled, and content in the belief that the King and the ministry must be right, none of them seem to have asked what would be best for the empire; they simply went along with the vindictive measures that were being set in motion.
No one in any position of power in the government proposed, after the Battle of Bunker Hill, to halt the fighting in order to settle the differences; no one seriously contemplated conversations that might have led to peace.
Instead the government—like so many governments before and since—took what appeared to be the easy way out and settled for war.
George III was determined to maintain his empire, intact and undiminished, and his greatest fear was that the loss of the American colonies would set off a reaction like a line of dominoes falling.
It contains such a train of consequences that they must be examined to feel its real weight. Should America succeed in that, the West Indies must follow, not in independence, but for their own interest they must become dependent on America.
Ireland would soon follow, and this island reduced to itself, would be a poor island indeed. Surpassing all others in sheer magnitude was the immense distance between the mother country and the rebellious colonies.
No contrivance can prevent the effect of this distance in weakening government. Seas roll, and months pass, between the order and the execution; and the want of a speedy explanation of a single point is enough to defeat a whole system.Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin The colonists had a highly developed sense of identity and unity as Americans by the eve of the revolution, but it took longer to attain colonial unity than a distinct identity.
As a result the war of the American Revolution was a limited war—limited from the standpoint of its objectives and the force with which Britain waged it.
In some respects the aspect of the struggle that may have had the greatest influence on the outcome was an intangible one. The Growth of the Chesapeake and Barbadian Colonies. the Chesapeake and Barbadian Colonies Many great examples of how pioneers blazed trails and discovered unchartered territories outline the fabric of American history.
We put a man on the moon in the sixties .
16th Century Indian Firangi Sword Circa 's Basket Hilt Form The name ‘Firangi’ (Foreigner) was apparently given to these swords somewhat later in the 17th Century, as they were mounted with European (Foreign) blades, imported by the Portugese, which were highly valued.
[The following is a transcription of Igor Shafarevich's The Socialist timberdesignmag.com work was originally published in Russian in France under the title Sotsializm kak iavlenie mirovoi istorii in , by YMCA Press.
An English translation was subsequently published in by Harper & Row.