Division Merely because a group as a whole has a characteristic, it often doesn't follow that individuals in the group have that characteristic. If you suppose that it does follow, when it doesn't, your reasoning contains the Fallacy of Division.
Domino See Slippery Slope. Double Standard There are many situations in which you should judge two things or people by the same standard. If in one of those situations you use different standards for the two, your reasoning contains the Fallacy of Using a Double Standard.
I know we will hire any man who gets over a 70 percent on the screening test for hiring Post Office employees, but women should have to get an 80 to be hired because they often have to take care of their children.
This example is a fallacy if it can be presumed that men and women should have to meet the same standard for becoming a Post Office employee. Equivocation Equivocation is the illegitimate switching of the meaning of a term that occurs twice during the reasoning; it is the use of one word taken in two ways.
The fallacy is a kind of Fallacy of Ambiguity. Brad is a nobody, but since nobody is perfect, Brad must be perfect, too.
The term "nobody" changes its meaning without warning in the passage. Equivocation can sometimes be very difficult to detect, as in this argument from Walter Burleigh: If I call you a swine, then I call you an animal.
Etymological The Etymological Fallacy occurs whenever someone falsely assumes that the meaning of a word can be discovered from its etymology or origins. The word "vise" comes from the Latin "that which winds," so it means anything that winds. Since a hurricane winds around its own eye, it is a vise.
Every and All The Fallacy of Every and All turns on errors due to the order or scope of the quantifiers "every" and "all" and "any. Every action of ours has some final end. So, there is some common final end to all our actions. In proposing this fallacious argument, Aristotle believed the common end is the supreme good, so he had a rather optimistic outlook on the direction of history.
Exaggeration When we overstate or overemphasize a point that is a crucial step in a piece of reasoning, then we are guilty of the Fallacy of Exaggeration. This is a kind of error called Lack of Proportion.
Then she said nothing when the teacher asked, "Who did that? Do you want to elect as secretary of this club someone who is a known liar prone to assault? Doing so would be a disgrace to our Collie Club.
When we exaggerate in order to make a joke, though, we do not use the fallacy because we do not intend to be taken literally. False Analogy The problem is that the items in the analogy are too dissimilar. When reasoning by analogy, the fallacy occurs when the analogy is irrelevant or very weak or when there is a more relevant disanalogy.
See also Faulty Comparison. The book Investing for Dummies really helped me understand my finances better. The book Chess for Dummies was written by the same author, was published by the same press, and costs about the same amount.Argumentum Consensus Gentium.
See Appeal to Traditional Wisdom.. Availability Heuristic. We have an unfortunate instinct to base an important decision on an easily recalled, dramatic example, even though we know the example is atypical. 1. The Concepts of Beneficence and Benevolence.
The term beneficence connotes acts of mercy, kindness, and charity. It is suggestive of altruism, love, humanity, and promoting the good of others.
In ordinary language, the notion is broad, but it is understood even more broadly in ethical theory to include effectively all forms of action intended to benefit or promote the good of other persons.
The article you have been looking for has expired and is not longer available on our system. This is due to newswire licensing terms. Table 2: Evaluating Additional Roles with Clients. Table 2 is designed to help assess whether blending roles should even be considered. We adapt from the ideas of many others as well as our own observations and research.
Lexis Advance is your legal research solution, efficiently powering your case law research with more relevant results from trusted sources. Try it today! Taxpayers that have to upload supporting documents (relevant material) using eFiling should make sure the documents meet the correct standards.