Introduction This paper will address two topics. The first is the education of American girls in the Northeast from Colonial times through the mid-nineteenth century, with an emphasis on needlework as a way to trace that progression—particularly in Connecticut schools. The second is to describe how needlework played a part in the education of girls in the town of Lyme, including the school established by Florence Griswold. Public Education in Early Connecticut Following the lead of Massachusetts Puritans, Connecticut, inadopted a code, also known as the blue laws, requiring towns that had reached a size of 50 householders to provide public education.
New England[ edit ] The first American schools in the thirteen original colonies opened in the 17th century. Boston Latin School was founded in and is both the first public school and oldest existing school in the United States.
Literacy rates were much higher in New England because much of the population had been deeply involved in the Protestant Reformation and learned to read in order to read the Scriptures.
Literacy was much lower in the South, where the Anglican Church was the established church. Single working-class people formed a large part of the population in the early years, arriving as indentured servants.
The planter class did not support public education but arranged for private tutors for their children, and sent some to England at appropriate ages for further education. By the midth century, the role of the schools in New England had expanded to such an extent that they took over many of the educational tasks traditionally handled by parents.
In the Massachusetts Bay Colony made "proper" education compulsory; other New England colonies followed this example.
Similar statutes were adopted in other colonies in the s and s.
The schools were all male and all white, with few facilities for girls. Although they were publicly supplied at the local town level, they were not free.
Hopkins School in New Haven, Connecticutwas another. By the s, most had been replaced by private academies. By the early 19th century New England operated a network of private high schoolsnow called "prep schools," typified by Phillips Andover AcademyPhillips Exeter Academyand Deerfield Academy They became the major feeders for Ivy League colleges in the midth century.
In late 17th century Maryland, the Catholic Jesuits operated some schools for Catholic students. During the colonial years, some sent their sons to England or Scotland for schooling. In Virginia, rudimentary schooling for the poor and paupers was provided by the local parish.
In the colony of Georgia, at least ten grammar schools were in operation bymany taught by ministers. The Bethesda Orphan House educated children. Dozens of private tutors and teachers advertised their service in newspapers.
Although it is difficult to know how many ads yielded successful schools, many of the ventures advertised repeatedly over years, suggesting continuity.
Wealthy families sent their sons North to college. In Georgia public county academies for white students became more common, and after South Carolina opened a few free "common schools" to teach reading, writing and arithmetic to whites.
Republican governments during the Reconstruction era established the first public school systems to be supported by general taxes. Both whites and blacks would be admitted, but legislators agreed on racially segregated schools.
The few integrated schools were located in New Orleans. Particularly after white Democrats regained control of the state legislatures in former Confederate states, they consistently underfunded public schools for blacks which continued until when the United States Supreme Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Generally public schooling in rural areas did not extend beyond the elementary grades for either whites or blacks. This was known as "eighth grade school"  Aftersome cities began to establish high schools, primarily for middle class whites.
In the s roughly one fourth of the US population still lived and worked on farms and few rural Southerners of either race went beyond the 8th grade until after It was founded in by the Sisters of the Order of Saint Ursula.
The Academy graduated the first female pharmacist, and the first woman to write a book of literary merit. The first convent established in the United States supported the Academy. This was the first free school and first retreat center for young women.
It was the first school to teach free women of colorNative Americans, and female African-American slaves. In the region, Ursuline provided the first center of social welfare in the Mississippi Valley; and it was the first boarding school for girls in Louisiana, and the first school of music in New Orleans.
It was optional and some towns proved reluctant to support this innovation. Northampton, Massachusettsfor example, was a late adopter because it had many rich families who dominated the political and social structures. They did not want to pay taxes to aid poor families.
Northampton assessed taxes on all households, rather than only on those with children, and used the funds to support a grammar school to prepare boys for college.
Not until after did Northampton educate girls with public money.Similar to Muslims and to other religio-ethnic minority communities in Iran, Zoroastrians had village schools they called maktab-khanah, which taught reading, writing, the Avesta, 9 and prayers to girls and boys.
By the mid-nineteenth century, Indian Parsi philanthropists had established the Society for the Amelioration of the Condition of the. Another theologian, Francis Schaeffer, warned his brethren about public schools: “In the United States the materialistic, humanistic world view is being taught exclusively in most state schools” and, to dominate society, the special target of humanists is the school (Schaeffer , p.
11, ). In addition to reading, writing, and arithmetic, mid-nineteenth-century public schools taught ?
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Discover. Create Flashcards; Mobile Apps; Company/5(1). In addition to reading, writing, and arithmetic, mid-nineteenth-century public schools taught The Protestant Ethic.
But as new public schools, called Common Schools, sprang up everywhere, there simply were not enough schoolmasters to staff them. reading, writing, basic arithmetic, a little geography and. The history of education in the United States, or Foundations of Education covers the trends in educational philosophy, and after South Carolina opened a few free "common schools" to teach reading, writing and arithmetic to whites. Public schools across the country were badly hurt by the Great Depression, as tax revenues fell in. In addition to reading, writing, and arithmetic, mid-nineteenth-century public schools taught The Protestant Ethic. 9. The radical abolitionist and cofounder of the American Anti-Slavery Society was William Lloyd Garrison.
9. The radical abolitionist and cofounder of the American Anti-Slavery Society was William Lloyd Garrison. In Georgia public county academies for white students became more common, and after South Carolina opened a few free "common schools" to teach reading, writing and arithmetic to whites.
Republican governments during the Reconstruction era established the first public school systems to be supported by general taxes. In addition to reading, writing, and arithmetic, public schools taught the Protestant ethic.
c. Working-class families viewed the public schools as as depriving them of needed wage earners. d.