Timeline of the Napoleonic era Napoleon 's retreat from Russia in The war swings decisively against the French Empire The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts from to pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon Iagainst a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitionsfinanced and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. Later efforts were less successful.
European Transportation Maps of the 19th Century European Transportation Maps of the 19th Century This Web page provides access to some of the maps showing European transportation facilities during the 19th century that are held at the University of Chicago Library's Map Collection.
The maps document an extraordinary change. At the beginning of the 19th century movement was largely along dirt roads and depended on horses or walking. Canals, some associated with the nascent Industrial Revolution, existed in a few places, but movement along the canals was also dependent on animal power.
It could take weeks to cross Europe. By the end of the 19th century, transportation had become enormously faster, more reliable, and more comfortable. Steam railroad lines had penetrated everywhere except parts of Eastern Europe, northern Scandinavia, and the High Alps.
Roads, even though they were starting to be paved, were secondary except at the very local level. Waterways continued to be important for bulk freight. The maps shown are a tiny subset of all the European transportation maps produced in the 19th century.
They were chosen to be representative rather then comprehensive.
Numerous additional titles at the University of Chicago Library--and in other North American libraries--can be found by searching with Library of Congress subject headings. The maps were scanned at dpi using NextImage software and were saved as tiff files You can access these files in three different ways: Zoomify breaks the original tiff files into tiny jpegs, so you can zoom in and out and move around quickly and efficiently.
Zoomify requires Flash and so won't work on many mobile phones. Luna, like Zoomify, allows you to zoom in and out and to move around.
It also allows download of jpeg versions of the files click "Export". To access the Luna files, click on the "Click here for Luna version" button. It will take you to a page from which you have a choice between access via Zoomify and access via Luna.
The original tiff files are also available.
E-mail from the "Questions about this page? Downloaded files are freely available for personal or scholarly use. If you use the images in a publication, we expect that you will mention that the original maps--and the files--are from the University of Chicago Library's Map Collection.
Several people contributed to the construction of this Web site. Joel Thomas of the Map Collection did nearly all the scanning, image preparation, and cataloging, and did some conservation work as well.
Renee Martonik of the Cataloging Department provided advice on the latest rules for cataloging Internet resources. Bobby Butler of the Map Collection improved a few files before this conversion and then edited the html on the Map Collection pages to point to the Luna versions.
The spatial index was created by map assistant Sam Brown in September periphery, nineteenth century Romania, as well as of this operation’s present- day relevance, will provide a case study for the larger context in which such processes have been occurring.
19th-century England, usually referred to as the Victorian Era, was a time of rapid economic development in England due to the Industrial Revolution. The country shifted from an agrarian focus to. In 19th and 20th century, British and French were the two of the most influential country in the world. At that time, Great Britain was the first colonial country in the world. At that time, Great Britain was the first colonial country in the world. In 19th and 20th century, British and French were the two of the most influential country in the world. At that time, Great Britain was the first colonial country in the world. At that time, Great Britain was the first colonial country in the world.
During the second half of the 19th century, industrialization (the rise of cities and manufacturing) upset the fragile lifestyle and stability of the peasant classes.
Millions moved to European cities seeking work and a decent life following the decline of agriculture and their way of life. The 19th century was an era of rapidly accelerating scientific discovery and invention, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century.
Romania's turbulent history of struggle and revolution dates back as far as the first century. The legacy of recent history, however, begins in the eighteenth century, when Romanians, swept up in the waves of nationalism and ambitions of.
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, , and ended on December 31, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United States.
Montenegro and Romania. Bulgaria becomes autonomous. China: Taiping Rebellion. Cultural Developments in the 19th Century Jump to section: At this time, the growing cultural awareness and participation of Transylvanian Romanian elites developed essentially in Hungarian Catholic and Protestant schools in Transylvania.