Just to name a few My Pet Peeve Constructs I have 3 top pet peeve or 3 related, grouped constructs that are very disturbing to me. I am listing them together because that is what people in current times generally do. Most of society believes in these constructions and believes they are inseparable.
With base pair comparisons possible across the individuals sequenced, the estimate that any two humans are Paradoxically, the evidence of vast numbers of DNA base pairs at which humans differ also became known at this time.
It is estimated currently that any two people will differ at approximately 3 million positions along their genomes. Previous chapters have discussed the contributions of the social environment, behavior, psychological factors, physiological mechanisms, and genetic variation to health.
These complex traits are multifaceted, and the goal is to tease apart the facets at different levels of organization in order to identify which of them directly modulate health. Failing to distinguish these different facets, both in the aggregate and within each level of analysis, will compromise the ability to obtain a more fine-grained understanding of how the different aspects of these fundamental individual traits interact to influence health.
Sex is a classification based on biological differences—for example, differences between males and females rooted in their anatomy or physiology. By contrast, gender is a classification based on the social construction and maintenance of cultural distinctions between males and females.
Differences in the health of males and females often reflect the simultaneous influence of both sex and gender. Not only can gender relations influence the expression of biological traits, but also sex-associated biological characteristics can contribute to amplify gender differentials in health Krieger, The relative contributions of gender relations and sex-linked biology to health differences between males and females depend on the specific health outcome under consideration.
In other instances, gender relations account substantially for observed gender differentials for a given health outcome—for example the higher prevalence of needle-stick injuries among female compared to male health care workers, which is in turn attributed to the gender segregation of the health care workforce.
The prevalence of HIV infection through needle-stick injury is higher among female health care workers because the majority of doctors are men, the majority of nurses and phlebotomists are women, and drawing blood is relegated to nurses and phlebotomists who are mostly women Ippolito et al.
In yet other instances, gender relations can act synergistically with sex-linked biology to produce a health outcome. For example, the risk of hypospadias is higher among male infants born to women exposed to potential endocrine-disrupting agents at work.
In this example, maternal exposure to the endocrine-disrupting agent e.
Once exposure occurs, the risk of the outcome is predicated on sex-linked biology and is different for women and men, as well as for female and male fetuses, because only women can be pregnant, and exposure can lead to the outcome hypospadias only among male fetuses all examples cited in Krieger, Finally, in some instances, sex-linked biology can be obscured by the influence of gender relations in producing health differentials between women and men.
Arber and colleagues demonstrated the presence of such bias in a randomized experimental study involving video-vignettes of a scripted consultation in which patients presented with standardized symptoms of CHD.
Women were asked fewer questions and received fewer diagnostic tests compared to men. Besides the behavior of health care providers, a number of other social processes are recognized as contributing to gender inequalities in health.
At the macro or societal level, these include the gender segregation of the labor force alluded to above and gender discrimination.
Gender segregation of the workforce and gender discrimination together contribute to the persistence of the gender wage gap—that is the fact that women earn less than men in paid employment Reskin and Padavic, The gender wage gap in turn contributes to the feminization of poverty.
Women— particularly female heads of households—are over-represented among poor households in virtually every society. The adverse health effects of poverty see Chapter 2 of this report therefore fall disproportionately on women and their children.
Within households, gender relations also are characterized by the unequal division of labor e. The stresses associated with care giving, particularly providing care for ill spouses, have been linked to adverse health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease Lee et al. Men and women differ biologically because their primary reproductive hormones are different.
Less well recognized are the sex differences in certain aspects of immune function that stem from the fact that women and men face different immune challenges.
Moreover, as is the case for many other mammalian species, other aspects of male and female biology also may differ because they have different roles in caring for offspring or function in different ecological niches, thus reducing parental competition.
For example, a brief stressor mimicking a burrow collapse results in a more pronounced long-term innate inflammatory response in female rats than in male rats exposed to the same stressor Hermes et al. Given that females become aggressive during lactation and may likely suffer from wounding, selection would favor those who can mount an inflammatory response that is effective enough to enable them to survive at least long enough to wean their nursing pups.
Given that males do not behave paternally in this species, a selection pressure at this juncture of the reproductive lifespan would not be as strong.
The central point is that sex differences in health and risk for disease are not simply minor correlates of differences in reproductive hormones.
They also result from deeply embedded highly coordinated physiological systems that have evolved to serve sex-specific functions. For example, women must have sufficient energy reserves to sustain the huge metabolic demands of pregnancy and lactation.The Social Construction of Race, Ethnicity, Sex, and Gender I guess I am torn about the issues discussed in the article but am intrigued by the studies done and examples in the media.
I think it is truly hard to determine how much society really does impact us. everything is a product of social conditioning. Sex, gender, race, ethnicity.
and Gender Inequality gender inequality dramatically differs from other forms of inequality such as class or race. Women and men are bound together as intimate couples. And because of reproduction, all people are bound to both new news to the scholars concerned with such issues.
But Millet departed from previous work by stressing sex's. The Social Construction of Race, Ethnicity, Class, and Gender Words Mar 20th, 5 Pages Socialization is the unequal distribution of power, wealth, income and .
Sep 08, · Education (inherent but shaped by social construction, social agreement and apathy) Gender (inherent but shaped by soc' constructs, agreements and apathy) Race (inherent but shaped by soc' constructs, agreements and apathy)Reviews: "What I find effective in The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality is the author's centrality of categories of race, class, gender, and sexuality, and how they are socially constructed and transformed by such social institutions as the family, education, the economy, state, and the timberdesignmag.coms: Definition.
A social construct or construction concerns the meaning, notion, or connotation placed on an object or event by a society, and adopted by the inhabitants of that society with respect to how they view or deal with the object or event.